• • •  revue d'art en ligne : arts médiatiques & cyberculture

Desire for holographic effect and incomplete gaze

Philippe Boissonnet

section cybertheorie


Evanescence of images,
spatial intangibility and precariousness of the visible

The evanescence of images, spatial intangibility and the precariousness of the visible are effects that certain visual, media or stage artists today seek to achieve by means other than "real" holographic recording processes (micro-optics and laser light). By examining some recent productions that are non-holographic, although holograph-like, we note a renewed interest in the fragile status of the image, in figures of the instability of things, in invisible structures, in states of luminous appearance and disappearance and in the evanescence or elusiveness of appearances, that is, in many qualities that are typically holographic. Having myself 1 widely explored holographic art media as aresearcher-creator, I have focused on better understanding the specific dynamics of these images, always coextensive with the very act of "looking." In this paper I propose an aesthetic interpretation whereby our desire for the disembodiment of bodies, for the evanescence of reality and the immateriality of the world, imperceptibly persuades a segment of the visual and stage arts today to adopt the aesthetic effects of the holographic image as a model. In consequence, I suggest that our age has already entered the regime of the holographic aesthetic of images - metaphorically at least - through the association of high-resolution digital and photonic technologies, and that this corresponds to the emergence of an expressiveness that is emblematic of the incomplete gaze we henceforth train on the world in its visible and invisible, material and immaterial complexity.


This gaze causing images to appear

The alternating appearance and disappearance of luminous holographic images is extremely consistent with our general idea of the evanescent. Whether it involves light, sound, air, twilight or energy, the evanescent always seems characterized by that which is on a threshold, on the thin edge of a state in the making, in the domain of the ephemeral, the intangible or the elusive.

But the aesthetic qualities unique to the holographic image are primarily associated with a transparent capaciousness, a dynamic co-emergence of the gaze, a purely luminous emanation and spatial ambiguity in regard to shapes. Since the completion of my first hologram (Slice of space-time, 1984), and after observing many people’s mixed reactions, I have gradually concluded that these kinds of images offer a perceptual experience that may be overly revealing in regard to the fleetingness of our retinal impressions, the precariousness of our sensory perceptions and, therefore, the uncertainty of the images we construct to better represent the world. The reality of loss felt through their non-tangibility, for example, interferes with our cognitive achievements, which usually involve the intermingling of haptics and optics. But I believe, on the other hand, that it awakens the spirit to a subtle understanding of the reality that science has accustomed us to construct from concepts of uncertainty, the inseparability of time and space, the relativity of the boundaries between matter and energy, and multiple configurations with hidden dimensions. Thinking back to the idea of configuration rather than representation used by Erwin Schrödinger2 (1951) to define the transient and relative nature that quantum physics contributes to our vision of the world, I understand perfectly how the evanescent space of that holographic image can serve as a powerful visual and conceptual metaphor for making us feel the limits of our understanding of the world and, therefore, the fragility of the images we conceive of it. The images we form at a given moment in the history of the techniques for representing the world remain important indications of how we understand that world. In particular, to see an image in all its formal modalities, both plastic and technical, is to be inspired as well by the cognitive configuration we weave collectively between light, our conception of it and the value we give it as much as much as by our use of it.

Real holograms, those that act to diffract light and whose three-dimensional information is recorded through the spatiotemporal interference of laser light waves, have another, intrinsic conceptual representation of the world, one inherited from the hypotheses of quantum physics, which speaks of a continuous, non-localized space-time in particular. In this sense, holographic images, with their spatial fragmentation and temporal reduction, have nothing to do with photography. Tbus, the aesthetic experience offered by holographic images cannot fail to help us project ourselves into the future. But how?  My main focus will be on this "gaze causing images to appear", which corresponds more or less to what Georges Didi-Huberman called “appearing images”3, whereas the space of holographic perception is truly expressive of the dynamic meeting, active but fragile, that our gaze achieves each moment with the emanating optical flux.

There is no denying, in fact, that holography has something purely phenomenal in its specific visualization principle. And this phenomenality, by revealing the limits of our system of visual perception, subtly brings to the forefront of awareness the hidden side of the power of digital display:  the fragility of images and the always incomplete way these images encourage us to look at the world from now on. A world of mutations and fluctuations. A world that becomes unstable in our eyes. In 1994, Anne Sauvageot had already detected this indisputable relationship between the evolution of ways to create images and the physics of light:

“The image, by investing the waveform, marries its behaviours (...). Just as the Euclidean light ray was in tune with a logos and measurement-based modeling, just as Cartesian dioptrics was in harmony with linear perspective, so the quantum theory of light - the final part of this triptych – is, in its turn, an example of the adventure of the contemporary gaze trained on a world that is henceforth uncertain.  It is no doubt reasonable to associate, if only metaphorically, the morphogenetic “aberrations” of a new visual imagination with the strange behaviour of photons.”4

Accordingly, it is obvious that the arts of the digital image, like those of the holographic image, introduce a new phenomenology of mediated perception. In this context, the evanescence specific to the holographic image becomes rather emblematic of an aesthetic sensibility contemporary with the information age, that is, of the sign that remains incomplete because it is constantly in the algorithmic update phase (for the digital) and in the diffractive deployment phase (for the holographic). But while this visual incompleteness of the info-electronic sign suggests that the problem lies in the technological nature of the medium itself, the resulting ambivalence of holographic perception and sense of incompleteness reveals, instead, the imperfection of our visual system and our resultant cognitive limitations. Thus, we can say that the visual, haptic and kinaesthetic experience is an aesthetic trigger that highlights that which is less fragile in us, that part where the physical and psychological experiences of light intermingle and substantially construct our cognitive relation to the real. If we are attentive to it, the experience of holographic evanescence can reveal (highlight) the vacillating and precarious facet that our gaze inevitably establishes with visible space.


The holographic image imagined :

It is said that holography as an art form was as much a victim of its fantasized image (that is, of an imaginary idea based on literature and science fiction films), than of the staggering growth of digital technologies and telecommunications. However, it is necessary to take a closer look at its modus operandi as regards the reality of the visual reception of holographs and the fantasy in the public mind.


Fantasized emanation and hyper-resemblance

When viewing the holograms presented at exhibitions, whether artistic or not, one quickly realizes that a viewing ritual is involved, just as in the movie theatre or in front of a TV screen. First of all, the hologram is intended for the individual rather than the group, and the narrow delineation of the image’s field of visibility gives the viewer the impression of looking through a window or a hole in a surface. Except that what there is to see very often extends beyond the delineation. Moreover, one cannot avoid seeing the limits of the area where the image is shown, behind or around, and, therefore, the support. To this is added the visual dynamics of coming-and-going, the movements of the body, head and eyes, which recall the attitude of the viewer. But we expect much more even, the "no limits" of the field of visualization in particular. We must, in fact, be aware of the existence of the holographic image of popular imagination, which is based on the expectation of what a hologram should be in the absence of all physical constraints, even all lighting. Oddly, the expectation is that it look "natural", albeit eerie. Thanks to the impact of science-fiction literature and films, too much is expected of this imagined holography. As a result, it is already present among us, even though current technology does not yet allow us to attain this ideal power to create a simulation that is three-dimensional, animated and floating entirely in our visual perception of space. The "not enough" of real holography is then blamed, for it confronts the viewer with his unsatisfied desire and a space of incompletion, and drives him towards faux holograms.  What Nicolas A. Brun (2007) calls the hologramme bidouillé (hacked hologram) when speaking of the videographic work of the Frenchman Pierrick Sorin, Sorin himself terms “optical theatre”, as he does for his work Variable No. 1, The Cousin.


The Cousin, Pierrick Sorin, video, fiber, wood, mirror, record player, TV screen, 2008


“The hologram very often serves as an advertising motto. Misunderstood by the general public, the word "hologram" frightens, astonishes, inspires admiration and fascination, and is too often used to describe everything and sometimes anything. Art is no exception to the rule and now manufactures many simulacra of the illusions it once created”.5.

David Pizanelli underscores how the hologram, as perceived by the general public, has become mythical. A myth corresponding to a mass psychological need, but one that is increasingly rooted in the vision of a contemporary aesthetics, while the technologies used derive, rather, from the illusionist effects of projecting 2D images onto a semi-transparent screen, or from cinematic special effects, or from optical assemblies of lenses, mirrors or multilayered acetates. So there is certainly an image of the holographic image. And this image of fantasy, now become cultural, signifies something very interesting. Building on a few cinematic, even televisual, examples, Pizanelli speaks clearly of the psychological need that would be met by fictional holograms beyond any imposition of technical authenticity. The hologram would thus be similar to the airplane and the rocket insofar as it is a modern medium, as the term is defined by McLuhan, whose invention was preceded by human beings’ dream of it:

The striking agreement and consistency within the different portrayals of fictional holograms in different films and programs on TV, and the large number that have been represented, has resulted in a notion of a mythical hologram, which has, in recent years, become subtly infused into the popular concept of what constitutes a real hologram, so that the word "Hologram" has a cultural significance over and beyond the literal dictionary definition (...)6.

What’s more, it is especially when holography delves into figurative explorations close to realistic photography that it is overtaken by its fantastical effigy. Jacques Rancière (2003), reflecting on the fate of images puts us, moreover, onto a very interesting path by attempting to unravel that which, regarding the notions of resemblance and non-resemblance in photography, appears to pose a problem for our contemporaries so obsessed with the indiciality of objects and their tangible traces. Shadows, reflections, smoke, imprints, photographs and analogue holograms ... proceed from this same appetite for testimony to reality like so many ready-made images.

“The hyper-resemblance is the original resemblance, the resemblance that does not offer the replica of a reality but attests directly to the elsewhere from which it derives. This hyper-resemblance, this is the alterity our contemporaries demand from the image or whose disappearance, together with the image, they deplore [...]. And it [photography] is henceforth perceived, regarding pictorial artifices, as the very emanation of a body, as a skin detached from its surface, positively replacing the appearances of resemblance and defeating the efforts of the discourse that wants it to express a meaning”7.

Aesthetic reception of the holographic image is thus faced with the desire, buried deep in our unconscious, for an image that would be the luminous and perfect emanation of the real, “like a skin detached from its surface.” This original resemblance attesting to the elsewhere, is even more fascinating in holography than photography because it takes on an ectoplasmic appearance. This ectoplasmic hyper-resemblance, moreover, was cleverly and simply highlighted in the Italian Pavilion of the 54th Venice Biennale, which, in 2011, introduced the work of the young Italian artist Dora Tassinari. The latter in fact exploited this potential emanation from an original elsewhere by combining Desnisyuk8-type holograms with obsolete technical artefacts. In Perturbing Objects, Dora Tassinari takes cut-off or detached parts from old typewriters, printers or telephones and juxtaposes them with the three-dimensional image of the part that is missing. The holographed missing part, like a phantom limb, effectively produces a strange impression of "already-there not-quite-there." An almost ready-made.


Perturbing Objects, Dora Tassinari, Hologram and typewriter, 54th Venice Biennale, 2011



An unacknowledged desire for holographic effect

Today, one increasingly observes one or more aspects of the holographic aesthetic in contemporary visual productions, luminous and three-dimensional, although they lack the characteristics - physical and optical – intrinsic to their processes. We then witness an interesting trend toward holographic simulation, which can be interpreted as an unconscious or conscious quest for an image form that is emblematic of the disembodiment implied by our digital relationship to space, time, people and the world in general.


Luminous coexistence and the dynamics of the gaze

This is seen in artists of contemporary art - including Pierrick Sorin - who maintain very little contact with holographic technology and, of course, in creators working in theatre entertainment, event design or museology for the general public.  The latter, however, are clearly more aware of the holographic simulation desired.

Marcel Duchamp would certainly have been fascinated by this medium so close to the infra-thin and, at the same time, would have been quite disturbed by its all-too-retinal aspect.  Be that as it may, we cannot avoid noticing that our digital and photonic age refers increasingly to a world of the image, with or without the power of emanation, and to fluid images displayed on LED screens, which evoke extremely well the luminous and fleeting impressions from the back of our retina.  The reminder of this fleetingness of the visible that holograms and other contemporary productions carry indicates, moreover, all the inseparability of light from space and time, from energy and matter, from the perceived and the perceiving.  In her essay on the sociology of the gaze (1994), Anne Sauvageot wrote that "the spatial relationship is a relationship of coexistence:  it is the being with" and that "this is the simplest and most essential form for any relationship to the world, and is the basis of all other relational modes: existential, symbolic ... "9. This leads us to infer that the viewer’s present quest for spatial coexistence in an immersive light (with floating image and remote ambient sound points to a search for matricial contact, a multisensory wholeness that is sharply distinguished from the optical and kinetic artwork of the Light & Space movement,  strongly influenced as it was by minimalist art and geometric abstraction . We have arrived, rather, within a perspective of spatiotemporal wholeness, both psychosensory and existential.

Holographic images do not propose as much, it is true, but their dynamic of appearing/disappearing images intermingling with eye and body movements produces a sensation of perceptual coexistence that recalls Anne Sauvageot’s being with of spatial coexistence. Holographic images, in fact, exist only in a strange adherence to our vision: the temporal flows of the image and the action being viewed are identical. This is even more obvious in large-scale facilities where the holograms are arranged around the viewer, as in my 1992  installation, The Awareness of Limits: Gaia10.


The Awareness of Limits : Gaïa, Philippe Boissonnet, holographic and interactive installation, 1992


The gaze and the body are then imbued with an effect of visual adherence recalling the attraction/repulsion effect of two magnets facing each other.  This particular coexistence with the image suggests a real sensation of totality formed by the immaterial space between our eyes and the illuminated surface.  Certainly, this "being with" regarding the perception of holographic images is an aesthetic quality essential to the medium.  Far more than virtual reality or 3D cinema, it involves an intrinsic aesthetic quality that I will call "dynamic incorporation of the gaze", since the aesthetic reception of these images requires no technology or interface other than light and the eye. We might even speak of the performative power of light.

With this in mind one understands the renewed interest shown for about ten years now in contemporary art for an "art of light, movement, space and vision"11.The Paris exhibition at the Grand Palais in spring 2013: Dynamo, a century of light and movement in art from 1913 to 2013is a good example. Several retrospectives in American museums have thus rehabilitated works from the years of Op Art, kinetic art and Light & Space. Thus, we note the exhibitions Optic Nerve: Perceptual Art of the 1960s at the Columbus Museum of Art (2007), TheThe Optical Edge at the Pratt Institute of Art in New York (2007), and Suprasensorial: Experiments in Light at MOCA in Los Angeles in 2010. Even the Canadian Michael Snow, resurrecting his first workshop holograms (1985) at the Jack Shainman Gallery (New York, 2012)), managed to weave an intriguing conceptual link between these laser-restorable holograms (Exchange, 1985) and a series of new digital video works (The Viewing of Six New Works, 2012) where he examined the variability of physical and perceptual relations formed temporarily between mural work, the light illuminating it, his frame of visualization and the subjective eye of the beholder12. Here, too, the limits of the mechanisms of vision and, therefore, of uncertainty about the visible and our perception of it were again examined.

The holographic effect as
symbolic form of the incomplete gaze (click on)

In this context, the emergent evanescence implied by holographic spatialization and its dynamic of display become strongly emblematic of a contemporary desire for an aesthetics of holographic effect. This desire, widespread in contemporary art, stage art, immersive shows and spatial visualization technologies, is seen, for example, in the more popular world of large-scale entertainment.


A pseudo-holographic emergence

Today - and particularly since the release of James Cameron's film Avatar (2009) -, everyone knows about the craze for 3D cinema, which not only employs a compelling new 3D process, but also stages imaginary holograms (those dear to the United States army). But outside the fictional realm of cinema, or even the technological advances in 3D TV, there are numerous techniques for applying 3D projective imaging to the live stage, techniques sometimes called "holographic projections", which the Montreal duo, Victor Pilon and Michel Lemieux, implemented to marvellous effect in their early 1990s theatrical productions.


Still image from Norman staged in 2007 and produced by 4DArt Studio inspired from A Chairy Tale by Norman McLaren (1957)


This spatial imaging technology has even been used in other larger-scale productions, including musical performances by Madona, Tupac or a posthumous Michael Jackson.  In the ironic words of the Australian artist Paula Dawson, "the ghost-like picture of Tupac [Shakur] captured the imagination of concert-goers… Imagine if they'd seen a real hologram”13.


Tupac Hologram


In fact, it is a highly modernized, digital version of the Pepper's Ghost14 technique, derived from an illusionist tradition dating to the magic lanterns, Chinese shadows and phantasmagoria performances of the nineteenth century. A technique that became increasingly popular, even in urban areas where street lighting can be disruptive, since on April 15, 2015 the French magazine ADN and the TV channel Euronews carried the respective headlines "Hologram demonstration in Spain” and "Spain: Hologram rally outside parliament defends right to protest” concerning a video projection on semi-transparent film stretched in front of the Spanish parliament building and depicting a group of demonstrators having an eerie, bluish appearance.


Pepper’s Ghost projection effect in the streets of Madrid, 2015


While everyone awaits 3D holographic projection for TV, however, I must mention the highly publicized media event involving a journalist interviewed during a pseudo-holographic broadcast, which the American network CNN aired in 2008 on the day Barack Obama was elected to the presidency. Based on a false idea of holographic projection in the style of the R2-D2 robot (impossible in holography because this method is diffractive, not projective), the wholly videodigital effect was nonetheless highly successful. This "pseudo-holographic" technology is, moreover, being developed on a larger scale by the ICT Institute of the University of Southern California in collaboration with the USC Shoah Foundation.The project involved is New Dimensions in Testimony15, whose goal is to create in the coming years a living memorial to Holocaust survivors by means of what they term interactive holograms. The ICT team of researchers has indeed managed to create a highly effective device using multiple cameras and a rotating platform to produce fake animated holograms that appear on a glass screen before an audience of several people.


Museums and archiving pseudo-holographic projection process
New Dimension in Testimony, USC Shoah Foundation, 2013


Is not our way of seeing the appearances of the real not already wholly influenced, at least metaphorically, by the holographic image rather than by the single aesthetic regime of the photographic or digital image, despite the fact that 3D image technology is not yet a large part of our everyday social practices?  Are we not already seeing new software (such as e-motion), such as that designed by the duo LeapMotion16 par le tandem Adrien M/Claire B? Again, this is an application of the Pepper's Ghost illusionist technique, which combines with the power of digital videos and motion sensors to enable interaction with the body in real time.

Regarding artistic research in the interactive arts, the work of the group Workspace Unlimited17. must be pointed out as well. Working with an interactive device for motion sensors and real-time digital computing technology, another artistic duo managed to stage - without the use of holography - this emergent aesthetic of three-dimensional images that adheres, literally, to the movements of the viewer. One of their latest creations, entitled Realtime Unreal (October 2011), was, moreover, presented at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (October 2011). The work allowed viewers to visually experience the impact of their 360-degree movements around a giant screen on which 3D images of part-real, part-fictional architectural spaces were constructed and deconstructed.


RealTime UnReal in Canada


The production was operated entirely by a system of motion sensors (infra-red) that intersected horizontal and vertical information produced by the images from pairs of stereoscopic cameras. The device analyzed in real time the movements of one individual at a time, who wore polarizing glasses to experience the full immersive effect. The interest of this work relative to our question about the ambient desire for holographic effect lies mainly in the spatial scale of the collective experience offered the viewers. Although all are invited to wear polarizing glasses, however, only one person can control the movements of the image displayed on the giant screen.

Apart from state-of-the-art interactive and holographic technology, I must highlight the outstanding creative work of a young British artist living in Montreal: David Spriggs. At the Art Mûr Gallery in Montreal (2008), his 2D interventions on multi-layered, spray-painted acetates stretched to the corners of a kind of aquarium inspired by images of stellar clouds created the impression of a vague, three-dimensional floating. Since 2010, the artist has been producing large-scale works and has created the neologism Stratachrome18 to name his installations consisting of enormous acetates in ethereal colours placed within a metallic structure. Immersive in aspect, they plunge the gaze into intense spectral colours of blue, green or red that recall the first monochromatic laser holograms. Holographic inspiration was even more obvious a few years later in the acetates in his exhibition Prism at Arsenal Contemporary (Montréal, 2015). This was the case, in particular, for his monumental stratachrome Regisole Sun-King, where colours, insubstantiality, and a perceptual three-dimensionality and kinetics typical of the holographic are masterfully exploited.


Regisole-Sun King, David Spriggs
Installation with paint sprayed on multilayered acetates, springs and aluminum, 2015


On a different note, more esoteric than plastic perhaps, the luminous works of the Spanish artist Roseline de Thelin employ, instead, sculptural assemblies of fibre optics and LED lights to again display the powerful metaphor of the imagined hologram. A visual understanding confirmed, moreover, by journalists who continue to borrow the imagined hologram to describe diverse creations having a luminous and ethereal appearance: “Her holographic ethereal beings, the ‘Homos Luminosos’, are mythical figures made out of light points edged on hundreds of optic fibres”19.


Homos Luminosos, Roseline de Thélin, optic fibers, light and quartz crystals, 2011




Thanks to its potential for formulating the evanescence of the appearances of reality over and above a fascination with 3D, holography contains a powerfully metaphorical means of expressing all the contemporaneity of the notion of perceptual emergence, and is part of a current interest in the fragility of the image.

There is presently a strong contemporary sensitivity to the incomplete gaze, elusiveness, the uncertainty of the perceptible and, consequently, our own finitude. As if the power of understanding the real - made possible by the staggering growth of science and technology, both digital and photonic - were reaching its limits due to a confrontation with the illusion of power imposed by the reality of our sensitive humanity, while it simultaneously and inadvertently gives rise to its opposite: the loss of certainty, elusiveness and the evanescence of the real. Our collective imagination is now increasingly marked by a paradoxical fascination for, on one hand, the immateriality and evanescence of things (of the real) and, on the other, a very powerful realism (via digital imagery and interaction in real time), which aims incessantly to better capture and represent the things of this world. Except that this power of understanding is no longer limited to the visible. Venturing largely beyond the appearance of reality, it appears to drive human beings towards a feeling of dissolution, of the dematerialisation of our relationship to the real, which we feel impelled to exorcise through art and cultural productions.

This is the reason our age has, metaphorically, already entered the regime of a holographic aesthetics of the image which, bypassing holographic technology through metaphorization, is becoming a symbolic form of the incomplete gaze that characterizes our present vision of the world in all its complexity - visible and invisible, micro- and macrophysical, material, energetic and informational.



1 In French, we can always refer to the texts contained in Volume 1 of the works directed by Louise Poissant: Aesthetics of media arts, Presses de l'Université du Québec, 1995; as well as the work of Nicolas A. Brown: Three pleas for a holographic art, coll. Art in short, Paris: L'Harmattan, 2007
2 "Elementary particles are nothing other than the configurations; what comes to us and is constantly with us in our successive observations, which are configurations, not individualized portions of a material. " In E. Schrödinger, quantum physics and representation of the world. Mr. Bitbol. (Preface), Paris: Ed. Du Seuil, 1992, p. 40
3 Didi-Huberman G. "The paradox of the stick insect" in The thinness of the image. Nicole Gingras (eds.), Coll. "Essays," Montreal: ed. Dazibao 1997
4 A. Sauvageot Also see and know: contributions to a sociology of the look, Paris: Ed. PUF, 1994, p. 184
5 A. Nicolas Brun. "From the contemporary art holographic his mock" in Three pleas for a holographic art, Paris: Ed. L'Harmattan, 2007, p. 117
6 Pizzanelli, D. The Evolution of the Mythical Hologram, Proceedings of the SPIE. The International Society for Optical Engineering 1992, pages 430 to 437
7 J. Rancière The image destiny, Paris: Éditions La Fabrique, 2003, p. 17
8 Name given to the holographic recording process developed by Yury Nikolaevich Denisyuk, Russian who invented in the early 70s the scientific recording light reflection method on a transparent emulsified support with a single laser beam (interference source and his thoughts on the subject).
9 Sauvageot A. (1994). Op. Cit. p. 221
10 Awareness of limits: Gaia 8 holograms transmission, steel, wood, lead and infrared motion detector. Presented at the Centre of Contemporary Arts of Quebec in Montreal in September 1993. (Photography credit: Alex Kempkens)
11 See the article by Mr. Boutoulle (February 2011). Explore the limits of the visible (Interview with Mr. Poirier). Accessed February 22, 2012 at
12 See the press release and photographs announcing the exhibition on the site of the Jack Shainman gallery. Accessed March 22, 2013 at the URL
13 P. Dawson (February 2012), Beyond Tupac - The future of hologram technology. Accessed online August 24, 2015 on The Conversation at
14 Developed in 1862 by Henry Dircks, from light projections on large format windows, these spooky theatrics were popularized by John Henry Pepper, who gave them the name most known today: Pepper's ghost illusion.
15See in this regard the project summary on the website of the USC Institute for Creative Technology but also the online article published in CNET Reviews: Holograms of Holocaust survivors let crucial stories live on. Accessed February 28, 2013 in
16 See in this regard section of the blog Collagiste. Accessed July 31 at
17 The collective Workspace Unlimited consists of Kora Vanden Bulcke and Thomas Soetens, respectively architect and visual artist. A collaborative art-science-technology, commissioned by the Museum of the Moving Image.
18 For example with the installation "Blue Stratachrome" built with mirrors and acetates, which was presented in 2012 at Abrons Arts Center Gallery (NYC). Accessed online July 25, 2015 at in the "Projects" section.
19 Œuvres presented in 2011 at the arts festival, light, media and technologies Frequency (Lincoln, UK). See also the article accessed 24 August 2015 online at



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Cette publication a été rendue possible grâce au soutien financier d'Hexagram, du groupe de recherche des arts médiatiques (GRAM), de la Faculté des arts de l'UQAM, de la Chaire du Canada en esthétique et poétique de l'UQÀM (CEP), ainsi qu'à une subvention, pour une quatorzième année consécutive, du Conseil des arts du Canada (CAC).